Western Atlantic: Massachusetts, USA and Bermuda southward to the Gulf of Mexico (except in the northeast) and Brazil. Eastern Atlantic: Ascension and St. Helena islands (Ref. 7345) off Angola (Ref. 26938). A recent record from Seychelles is probably a locality error (Ref. 13442).
- Robins, C.R. and G.C. Ray 1986 A field guide to Atlantic coast fishes of North America. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, U.S.A. 354 p. (Ref. 7251) http://www.fishbase.org/references/FBRefSummary.php?id=7251&speccode=942
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