Viviparous, placental (Ref. 50449), with 6 to 9 young per litter. Size at birth about 35 to 40 cm.
- Balon, E.K. 1990 Epigenesis of an epigeneticist: the development of some alternative concepts on the early ontogeny and evolution of fishes. Guelph Ichthyol. Rev. 1:1-48. (Ref. 7471)
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