Distinct pairing with embrace (Ref. 205). Viviparous, placental (Ref. 50449). 1 to 7 young per litter. Larger females carry more young. Size at birth 29-37 cm. Gestation period is 10 to 11 months in the northern Gulf of Mexico. Sex ratio of near term fetuses is 1:1 (Ref. 244).
- Breder, C.M. and D.E. Rosen 1966 Modes of reproduction in fishes. T.F.H. Publications, Neptune City, New Jersey. 941 p. (Ref. 205) http://www.fishbase.org/references/FBRefSummary.php?id=205&speccode=1256
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