Viviparous, placental (Ref. 50449), with 3 to 13 in a litter (Ref. 9997). Size at birth about 43 to 53 cm TL (Ref. 9997); 60-70 cm TL (Ref.58048). Distinct pairing with embrace (Ref. 205).
- Breder, C.M. and D.E. Rosen 1966 Modes of reproduction in fishes. T.F.H. Publications, Neptune City, New Jersey. 941 p. (Ref. 205)
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