Eastern Atlantic: southern Bay of Biscay to South Africa, including the Mediterranean. Western Indian Ocean: South Africa to Delagoa Bay, Lourenço Marques.
- Smith-Vaniz, W.F. 1986 Carangidae. p. 815-844. In P.J.P. Whitehead, M.-L. Bauchot, J.-C. Hureau, J. Nielsen and E. Tortonese (eds.) Fishes of the north-eastern Atlantic and the Mediterranean. UNESCO, Paris. vol. 2. (Ref. 4233)