Dorsal fins well separated; 2nd dorsal fin sub equal to anal fin in size and form, and opposite in position. Reaches over 1 m in SL.
- Masuda, H., K. Amaoka, C. Araga, T. Uyeno and T. Yoshino 1984 The fishes of the Japanese Archipelago. Vol. 1. Tokai University Press, Tokyo, Japan. 437 p. (text). (Ref. 559)
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