110 cm TL (male/unsexed; (Ref. 7251)); max. published weight: 5,436 g (Ref. 4926); max. reported age: 18 years (Ref. 796)
- Beverton, R.J.H. and S.J. Holt 1959 A review of the lifespans and mortality rates of fish in nature, and their relation to growth and other physiological characteristics. p. 142-180. In G.E.W. Wolstenholme and M. O'Connor (eds.) CIBA Foundation colloquia on ageing: the lifespan of animals. volume 5. J & A Churchill Ltd, London. (Ref. 796)
- Leim, A.H. and W.B. Scott 1966 Fishes of the Atlantic coast of Canada. Bull. Fish. Res. Board Can. (155):485 p. (Ref. 4926)
- Robins, C.R. and G.C. Ray 1986 A field guide to Atlantic coast fishes of North America. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, U.S.A. 354 p. (Ref. 7251)
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