Circumglobal in subtropical waters: Series of disjunct populations. Indo-Pacific: South Africa, Walter Shoals, Amsterdam Island, Japan, Australia, New Zealand, New Caledonia, Hawaii, Rapa, Pitcairn Island, and Easter Island. Eastern Pacific: British Columbia, Canada to Chile (Ref. 2850), including Desventuradas Is. and Juan Fernández Is. (Ref. 89357). Eastern Atlantic: St. Helena, South Africa (Ref. 7097).
- Smith-Vaniz, W.F. 1999 Carangidae. Jacks and scads (also trevallies, queenfishes, runners, amberjacks, pilotfishes, pampanos, etc.). p. 2659-2756. In K.E. Carpenter and V.H. Niem (eds.) FAO species identification guide for fishery purposes. The living marine resources of the Western Central Pacific. Vol. 4. Bony fishes part 2 (Mugilidae to Carangidae). Rome, FAO. 2069-2790 p. (Ref. 9894) http://www.fishbase.org/references/FBRefSummary.php?id=9894&speccode=382
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