Occurs in fresh, brackish and coastal waters (Ref. 7251). Primarily found in brackish water but common in pools and other quiet water areas of medium to large rivers, usually over mud. Neither anterolateral glandular groove nor venom gland is present (Ref. 57406).
- Page, L.M. and B.M. Burr 1991 A field guide to freshwater fishes of North America north of Mexico. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston. 432 p. (Ref. 5723) http://www.fishbase.org/references/FBRefSummary.php?id=5723&speccode=2590
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