Inhabits coastal waters and are commonly found in bays but may enter rivers in the spring to spawn (Ref. 2850). Coastal schooling species and anadromous (Ref. 5951); some populations are landlocked (Ref. 7251). Larvae feed on zooplankton; juveniles take in small shrimps and other crustaceans, annelid worms, and insects; adults feed on a wide variety of fishes and invertebrates, mainly crustaceans (Ref. 1998). Feeding ceases shortly before spawning (Ref. 1998). Juveniles are preyed upon by Atlantic tomcod, Atlantic cod, silver hake and larger striped bass.