Inhabit coastal waters and are commonly found in bays but may enter rivers in the spring to spawn (Ref. 2850). Some populations are landlocked (Ref. 7251). Voracious and opportunistic feeder (Ref. 5951). Larvae feed on zooplankton; juveniles take in small shrimps and other crustaceans, annelid worms, and insects (Ref. 1998, 10294); adults feed on a wide variety of fishes (alewives, herring, smelt, eels, flounders, mummichogs, rock gunnels, sand lance, silver hake and silversides (Ref. 5951)) and invertebrates (squid, crabs, sea worms and amphipods (Ref. 5951)), mainly crustaceans (Ref. 1998). Feeding ceases shortly before spawning (Ref. 1998). Utilized fresh and eaten broiled and baked (Ref. 9988).
- Heemstra, P.C. 1995 Moronidae. Lubinas. p. 1289-1292. In W. Fischer, F. Krupp, W. Schneider, C. Sommer, K.E. Carpenter and V. Niem (eds.) Guia FAO para Identification de Especies para lo Fines de la Pesca. Pacifico Centro-Oriental. 3 Vols. FAO, Rome. (Ref. 9320)
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