Benthopelagic to bathypelagic in about 400 and 1200 m depth. Form large schools at 600 to 900 m depth (Ref. 9988). Feed on a variety of fish and invertebrates, but primarily on pelagic crustaceans such as shrimps, amphipods and cumaceans; cephalopods and lantern fishes constitute a lesser portion of the diet. This species is currently facing overexploitation in the North Atlantic (Ref. 1371). Adults are preyed upon by whales and Greenland halibut (Reinhardtius hippoglossoides
); young fish by redfish and other species. Parasites of the species include 5 myxosporidians, 1 monogenean, 3 cestodes, 7 trematodes (like Dolichoenterum
sp. and Gonocerca crassa
), 3 nematodes and 2 crustaceans (Ref. 5951).
Cohen, D.M., T. Inada, T. Iwamoto and N. Scialabba 1990 FAO species catalogue. Vol. 10. Gadiform fishes of the world (Order Gadiformes). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of cods, hakes, grenadiers and other gadiform fishes known to date. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(10). Rome: FAO. 442 p. (Ref. 1371)