Occurs from shallow inshore waters to depths of 477 m and up to 260 m in the Gulf of Maine (Ref. 7135). Benthic (Ref. 5951). Feeds mainly on fishes, but also on shrimps and small shellfish. Commonly caught by anglers along piers, docks and jetties in middle Atlantic states.
- Robins, C.R. and G.C. Ray 1986 A field guide to Atlantic coast fishes of North America. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, U.S.A. 354 p. (Ref. 7251) http://www.fishbase.org/references/FBRefSummary.php?id=7251&speccode=942
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