North Atlantic Ocean: temperate and arctic zones in northern hemisphere (Ref. 51442).In the western Atlantic, it ranges from western Greenland and the coastal drainages of Quebec, Canada, to Connecticut, USA (Ref. 5723). Landlocked stocks are present in North America (Ref. 1998). In the eastern Atlantic, it ranges from the White and Barents Sea basins through northeastern Europe to the Baltic and North Sea basins, including Iceland (Ref. 59043). Introduced to New Zealand, Chile, southern Argentina (Ref. 59043) and Australia (Ref. 6390).Listed in Appendix III of the Bern Convention (2002) (freshwater only).Listed in Annex II (freshwater only; excluding Finnish population) and V (freshwater only) of the EC Habitats Directive (2007).
- Page, L.M. and B.M. Burr 1991 A field guide to freshwater fishes of North America north of Mexico. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston. 432 p. (Ref. 5723) http://www.fishbase.org/references/FBRefSummary.php?id=5723&speccode=2590
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