Found on the shelf or coastal pelagic on various bottoms (sand, mud, rocks and seaweeds). Gregarious, ascending to the surface mainly at night. Omnivorous, feeding mainly on crustaceans, also planktophagous. Hermaphroditic, generally protogynous. Also caught in pelagic trawls (Ref. 9987). Utilized fresh and frozen; consumed pan-fried, broiled and baked (Ref. 9987).
- Bauchot, M.-L. and J.-C. Hureau 1990 Sparidae. p. 790-812. In J.C. Quero, J.C. Hureau, C. Karrer, A. Post and L. Saldanha (eds.) Check-list of the fishes of the eastern tropical Atlantic (CLOFETA). JNICT, Lisbon; SEI, Paris; and UNESCO, Paris. Vol. 2. (Ref. 3688) http://www.fishbase.org/references/FBRefSummary.php?id=3688&speccode=203
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