Occur in shallow neritic areas, over muddy bottoms (Ref. 5217). Also found in brackish estuaries and juveniles are common in lagoons and hyper-saline bays (Ref. 5217). Form large schools close to the shore (Ref. 9987). Feed mainly on crustaceans and small fishes. Spawn in the open sea (Ref. 5217). Larval development is represented by profound changes in body form accompanied by 2 periods of length increase, interspaced by a period of length decrease (Ref. 4639). Noted for their habit of skipping along the surface of the water and for jumping after being hooked (Ref. 5521). Marketed fresh, salted and frozen but considered a second rate food fish (Ref. 3718). Rhynchobothrium bulbifer found in the viscera of the adult (Ref. 37032).
- Robins, C.R. and G.C. Ray 1986 A field guide to Atlantic coast fishes of North America. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, U.S.A. 354 p. (Ref. 7251)
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