Western Atlantic: North Carolina, USA to northeastern Brazil (Ref. 57756), including the Gulf of Mexico (Ref. 9626). Common around the Caribbean.
- Allen, G.R. 1985 FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 6. Snappers of the world. An annotated and illustrated catalogue of lutjanid species known to date. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(6):208 p. Rome: FAO. (Ref. 55) http://www.fishbase.org/references/FBRefSummary.php?id=55&speccode=81
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