The sex ratio in catches is about 1:1 for immature individuals, but males predominate among mature fishes, which is possibly due to both differential mortality of sexes and differential growth rate after maturity.
- Collette, B.B. and C.E. Nauen 1983 FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 2. Scombrids of the world. An annotated and illustrated catalogue of tunas, mackerels, bonitos and related species known to date. Rome: FAO. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(2):137 p. (Ref. 168)
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