It is now extinct outside the Gulf of California. Supports a commercial net fishery close inshore, in estuaries and coastal marshes (Ref. 9987). Its biology is almost completely unknown. This fishery operates on a relict of the original population.
- Collette, B.B. and C.E. Nauen 1983 FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 2. Scombrids of the world. An annotated and illustrated catalogue of tunas, mackerels, bonitos and related species known to date. Rome: FAO. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(2):137 p.
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