Cosmopolitan. Western Atlantic: Newfoundland, Canada to Florida, USA; southern Brazil to Argentina. Eastern Atlantic: Iceland, Norway and western Barents Sea to the North Sea, Mediterranean and Senegal; also western Cape Province, South Africa. Western Pacific: Japan to New Zealand. Eastern Pacific: Gulf of Alaska to Chile; possibly the Galapagos Islands. Highly migratory species, Annex I of the 1982 Convention on the Law of the Sea (Ref. 26139). At risk of extinction by overfishing because of low to very low productivity (Ref. 36717). Appendix II (Mediterranean) of the Bern Convention (2002). Appendix I and II of the Bonn Convention (2009). International trade restricted (CITES Appendix II, since 28.5.2003).
- Compagno, L.J.V. 1984 FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 4. Sharks of the world. An annotated and illustrated catalogue of shark species known to date. Part 1 - Hexanchiformes to Lamniformes. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(4/1):1-249. Rome: FAO. (Ref. 247) http://www.fishbase.org/references/FBRefSummary.php?id=247&speccode=88