Major spawning grounds are located at 200 m depth from the Bay of Biscay to the Gulf of Norway at 100 to 300 m off southern Iceland, and at 50 to 300 m in the Mediterranean Sea. Fecundity may reach 20 to 60 million eggs per female (Ref. 1371).
- Svetovidov, A.N. 1986 Gadidae. p. 680-710. In P.J.P. Whitehead, M.-L. Bauchot, J.-C. Hureau, J. Nielsen and E. Tortonese (eds.) Fishes of the north-eastern Atlantic and the Mediterranean. UNESCO, Paris. vol. 2. (Ref. 3663)
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