Western Atlantic: Bermuda, Florida, Bahamas, Yucatan Peninsula and throughout the Caribbean to southern Brazil. Not known from the Gulf of Mexico except at the Campeche Bank off the coast of Yucatan, at Tortugas and off Key West.
- Heemstra, P.C. and J.E. Randall 1993 FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 16. Groupers of the world (family Serranidae, subfamily Epinephelinae). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the grouper, rockcod, hind, coral grouper and lyretail species known to date. Rome: FAO. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(16):382 p. (Ref. 5222) http://www.fishbase.org/references/FBRefSummary.php?id=5222&speccode=12
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