Primarily long-tongued bees visit the flowers for pollen and nectar, including bumblebees. Smaller short-tongued bees and Syrphid flies also visit the flowers, but they seek pollen and are probably less effective at pollination. The caterpillars of various moths are known to feed on foliage of Epilobium spp., including Fireweed, but they are usually found to the north of Illinois. The seeds are too small to be of much interest to birds. The foliage is non-toxic and palatable to various mammalian herbivores, but it has low food value.