North American Ecology (US and Canada)
is a year round resident across the northern United States and southern Canada, from Labrador south to the mid-Atlantic, west to central British Columbia, with several smaller separate populations in central US states (Scott 1986). Habitats are moist meadows in upper transition to Hudsonian zones. Host plants are restricted to one herbaceous genus, Viola
). Eggs are laid haphazardly around the host plant. Individuals overwinter as third- or fourth-instar larvae. There are variable numbers of flights (up to three) each year depending on latitude between May15- early Sep. (Scott 1986).
Scott, J. A. 1986. The butterflies of North America. Stanford University Press.