Length: 30-37 cm. Plumage: darkish grey back and wings, crown black in breeding bird; in non-breeding bird forehead white, forecrown speckled white, cheeks and collar on hind neck white; below white in non-breeding, grey in breeding birds; leading edge of wing in non-breeding bird very dark grey; trailing edge of primaries blackish in all plumages. Immature similar to non-breeding adult but with dark band on upperwing coverts. Bare parts: iris brown; bill with dark red base, black distal half and pale tip; feet and legs red. Habitat: seashores and open ocean. Resident, breeds on offshore islands. <389><391><393>
- Urban, E.K., C.H. Fry & S. Keith (1986). The Birds of Africa, Volume II. Academic Press, London. http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=sourcedetails&id=6169
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