Adelie penguins impact krill (Euphausia superba), Antarctic silverfish (Pleuragramma antarcticum), and Cephalopoda populations, the main species in their diet. These penguins are impacted by leopard seals (Hydrurga leptonyx), killer whales (Orcinus orca), south polar skuas (Stercorarius maccormicki), and sheathbills (Chionis albus). (Ainley, 2002; Grossman, 2003)
- Ainley, D. 2002. The Adelie Penguin: Bellwether of Climate Change. New York: Columbia University Press.
- Grossman, D. 2003. On thin ice: Adelie penguins are proving to be Antarctica's most sensitive indicators of climate shifts. Their falling population portends a multitude of changes that will reverberate throughout the region. Audubon, 105.4: 78-83.