The "pteropod" Clione limacina, a marine gastropod mollusk that lacks a shell, has been the subject of extensive investigations of the neurobiology of swimming behavior. Its geographic distribution was long considered to be circumpolar (i.e., around both the northern and southern ends of the Earth), with northern and southern hemisphere subspecies. However, work by Gilmer and Lalli (1990) suggested that southern populations should be treated as a distinct species, C. antarctica. Clione limacina is widely distributed in the North Atlantic and Subarctic Oceans and is found also in the North Pacific Ocean and along the Atlantic coast of North America in the waters of the cold Labrador current south to the Cape Hatteras region (around 35 N).
Clione limacina breeds and spawns in all types of water masses within the vertical range it commonly inhabits, i.e., from the surface to 500 m. The most intensive spawning is correlated with the spring/summer period of annual heating of local water and the highest abundance parallels maximum growth of phytoplankton, which serves as food for veliger larvae and early polytrochous larvae. After the end of this period, spawning intensity in all local C. limacina populations declines sharply, although spawning continues at low intensity during the autumn/winter season.
Clione limacina feeds exclusively on shelled "pteropods", such as Limacina helicina. (Lalli and Gilmer, 1989). Only the veliger stage ofC. limacina does not feed on Limacina, instead consuming phytoplankton during this life stage . However, 48 to 72 h after metamorphosis from the veliger stage to polytrochous larvae (at around 0.3 mm length) C. limacina begin feeding. on Limacina veliger At sizes >0.6 mm, they began to consume metamorphosed Limacina prey and they do so exclusively once they exceed 1.75 to 2 mm in length. Clione capture their Limacina prey with their six buccal cones, and the proboscis is used to draw the body out of the shell. The feeding specialization of Clione is reflected by numerous adaptations. Because even the early polytrochous larvae of Clione feed on Limacina, their life cycles are necessarily closely synchronized. The feeding behavior of C. limacina is described in detail by Lalli and Gilmer (1989).
See additional images and information at the Sea Slug Forum for C. limacina> and C. antarctica
- Gilmer, R.W. & Lalli, C.M. (1990) Bipolar variation in Clione, a gymnosomatous pteropod. American Malacological Union Bulletin 8(1): 67-75.