There are an estimated c.99,000 pairs breeding per year of this biennial species, based on annual breeding population estimates of 48,000 pairs on South Georgia (Poncet et al. 2006), c.6,200 pairs on Marion Island (Crawford et al. 2003, although noting that number of pairs fluctuates between years), 3,000 pairs on Prince Edward Island (Ryan et al. 2003), 7,800 pairs on Campbell Island (Moore 2004), 16,408 pairs in Chile (Arata and Moreno 2002), and populations on Macquarie Island, Crozet and Kerguelen as given in Gales (1998) (84, 5,940 and 7,905 pairs respectively). This sums to an estimate of c.99,000 pairs breeding each year, equivalent to at least 250,000 mature individuals (Croxall and Gales 1998, Brooke 2004).
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