Tetrax tetrax has two widely separated breeding populations. In its eastern range it occurs in Russia (9,000 displaying males), Georgia (60 non-breeding individuals)6, Kyrgyzstan, Kazakhstan (c.20,000 individuals), Ukraine (100-110 individuals1), north-west China, northern Iran and Turkey (20-100 pairs2). Its western range covers Spain (43,000-71,700 individuals6, including 20,000-25,000 males5, down from 100,000-200,000 males in the 1990s) and Portugal (c.17,500 displaying males6), with smaller populations in Italy (1,515-2,220 individuals6), France (1,487-1,677 displaying males in 20045) and Morocco. Eastern populations winter from Turkey and the Caucasus to Iran, and erratically elsewhere in south Asia, with Azerbaijan holding the main wintering quarters (over 150,000 individuals in 2005-20067)6. Western populations winter in the Mediterranean zone, with the Iberian peninsula holding the most important wintering quarters (a minimum of 16,429-35-929 and 11,200 individuals in Spain and Portugal, respectively)6. The global population (excluding Kazakhstan) was estimated at a minimum of c.240,000 individuals in the late 1990s4, but it may be substantially lower than this, due to the re-evaluation of the size of the Spanish population8. Whilst it remains widespread and numerous, in some parts of its range it has declined dramatically since the 19th century, leading to extinctions in at least 11 European countries, Algeria, Tunisia and probably as a breeding bird in Azerbaijan. The species has now disappeared from mainland Italy, where it occurred in Apulia, and it is presently declining in France and Spain5. In Portugal, the population appears to be stable, and eastern populations are said to have increased in recent years6. The population in the Eurasian steppe belt is thought to have recovered due to an increase in fallow land during the transition process of the former Soviet Union7.