This species occurs from extreme eastern Central America and northern South America, south to Paraguay and north-eastern Argentina. Isolated subpopulations may also still occur in Ecuador and Colombia, west of the Andes. Its historical distribution may have extended as far north as Costa Rica (Rosa and Nocke 2002), where the species may still survive. The current distribution map was generated using the results of an extensive survey of carnivore biologists and literature for species presence (n = 399 historic locations), as well as a bioclimatic model predicting suitable area for the species (DeMatteo and Loiselle 2008). The latter authors estimated that the total area predicted to be suitable for Bush Dogs is in the order of 14,445,000 km², with 77% of this occurring within the current range.