A crucial factor in its decline was the loss of the Sittang valley breeding colony in Myanmar through deforestation and loss of feeding-sites. Key threats are a combination of human disturbance at breeding colonies and wetlands, extensive felling of nesting trees, hunting and poaching of eggs and chicks. Additional threats include loss of important feeding-sites through siltation, agricultural intensification, aquaculture development, drainage and conversion of wetlands, declines in wetland productivity as a result of pesticide use, and over-exploitation of fisheries. There is some persecution resulting from competition between the birds and fishers. A potential but as yet unqualified threat is posed by avian influenza4.
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