Irrawaddy dolphins have a discontinuous distribution in the tropical and subtropical Indo-Pacific, almost exclusively in estuarine and fresh waters (Stacey and Arnold 1999; Arnold 2002). They occur from Borneo and the central islands of the Indonesian Archipelago north to Palawan, Philippines, and west to the Bay of Bengal, including the Gulf of Thailand. There are freshwater subpopulations in three large rivers: Ayeyarwady (up to 1,400 km upstream) in Myanmar, Mahakam (up to 560 km upstream) in Indonesia, and Mekong (up to 690 km upstream) in Viet Nam, Cambodia and Lao PDR, and two marine-appended brackish water bodies or lakes: Chilika in India and Songkhla in Thailand. The fine-scale range of the species is poorly documented throughout much of its range in estuarine waters.
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