During the 1920s and 1930s numbers were sharply reduced through hunting. In the 1970s the Mongolian population size was estimated to be between 60,000 and 80,000 animals (Dulamtseren, 1977). In 1986, the Institute of Biology of the Mongolian Academy of Science assessed musk deer population sizes in over 53,000 hectares across 63 units of six provinces, resulting in an estimate of approximately 44,000 individuals. The population size in Mongolia continued to decrease: between 1990 and 2000, densities fell from six per 5 km², to one per 5 km² in one observed population (Tsendjav and Bujinkhand, 2000; Tsendjav, 2002). Likewise, all populations in Russia are considered declining. Population estimates from the Bureau of Sport Fisheries and Wildlife in 1999 put the Sakhalin population at about 600-650 individuals (still declining), the Eastern Siberian population at about 27,000-30,000 individuals, and the population in the Russian Far East at up to 150,000 individuals (K. Tsytsulina pers. comm.). Equivalent data appear not to be available for China or the Koreas, but these species is believed to be declining heavily there also. It is believed to be contracting in range in China, and had apparently disappeared from Xinjiang by the end of the 19th century.
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