There are no major threats at the species level. There are two localities where hybridization with the introduced Macaca spp. is known to occur: Taiwanese Macaque (Macaca cyclopsis) in Wakayama Prefecture; and Rhesus Macaque (M. mulatta) in Chiba Prefecture (Abe et al. 2005). However, in the former case, most individuals have been removed (Watanabe pers. comm.). Each year, over 10,000 individuals are killed to prevent agricultural damage (Abe et al. 2005), and this situation may require more careful population management.