Threats and degree of threat vary greatly across its range. Threats include habitat loss, commercial over-exploitation, and in some areas, probably competition/predation by bullfrogs or other introduced species. The decline in Rocky Mountains (Corn et al. 1989) is not due to acidification of breeding habitats (Corn and Vertucci 1992). Laboratory results suggest that there might be an interaction between crowding, temperature, and mortality from bacterial infection (e.g., red-leg disease); there was higher mortality when frogs were subjected to crowding and high temperatures (Brodkin et al. 1992). Agricultural chemicals such as atrazine have caused feminisation of frogs in agricultural areas (Hayes et al. 2002). In Panama it is threatened by general habitat loss due to the destruction of natural forests.