This species is endemic to the island of Bali, Indonesia, where it formerly ranged across the north-west third of the island. It has perhaps long been uncommon (numbers in the early 1900s, the period of discovery, have been retrospectively guessed at 300-900, although this is thought to be a gross underestimate), but has declined drastically in population and range. Illegal poaching reduced numbers to a critically low level in 1990, when the wild population was estimated at c.15 birds. Conservation intervention coupled with the release of a few captive-bred birds raised this to between 35 and 55. However, despite excellent breeding success and continuing conservation efforts, the population continues to fluctuate and fell to six birds in 20011. Continuing releases have raised numbers in West Bali National Park, such that surveys in March 2005 found 24 individuals2 and in 2008 the population here was believed to be around 50 birds3. However, it is uncertain how many of these released birds have bred successfully in the wild and therefore can be regarded as 'mature individuals' following IUCN guidelines. A population has been introduced on Nusa Penida island (apparently not part of the native range) derived from captive individuals. The population appears to have adapted to the island and is breeding, with a total of 65 adults and 62 young present in 20093. About 1,000 are believed to survive in captivity.
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