Breeding In north and west Europe the species is threatened at breeding colonies by predation from introduced ground predators such as American mink Neovison vison7, and by disturbance from tourism, angling and research activities during the laying period7. Inland populations breeding in colonies near rivers are also vulnerable to mass outbreaks of black flies (Simuliidae)7. The species is also threatened by the transformation and loss of its breeding habitats through land reclamation, drainage, afforestation (e.g. with conifers) and dam construction7. Non-breeding In its wintering range the species is potentially threatened by the activities of fisheries (e.g. reductions in fishing effort, increases in net mesh sizes and exploitation of formerly non-commercial fish species) and their effects on competition for prey resources7. Other threats to wintering sites include land reclamation and drainage7. Utilisation Egg collecting from in colonies occurs in Germany, Scotland, the Russian Federation and Poland, and the species is shot in the Russian Federation7.
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