CMS Appendix I and II. A European action plan was published in 1996. The ecology of this species, particularly its breeding and foraging behaviour and demography and population dynamics, has been extensively studied. Lebanon prepared an action plan to restore the breeding population back to Palm Islands Nature reserve. Several LIFE Nature projects have been implemented between 1992 and 2006 in Spain and Italy, contributing to successful recolonisation of breeding islands and development of safe line-fishing techniques. Control of invasive black rats Rattus rattus has been effective at some colonies35. Conservation Actions Proposed
Continue to monitor breeding colonies. Identify appropriate actions to mitigate against the key threats. Implement strict fishery management policies in the species's range. Increase the area of suitable coastal habitat that is protected from development and degradation. Enforce laws designed to minimise marine pollution. Implement measures to reduce mortality in fishing gear, perhaps facilitated by legislation. Ensure regulation of the river Ebro benefits the species.
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