Numerous countries have invoked protective measures to limit Grey Seal harvests, culls, disturbance and by-catch (Bonner 1981, ICES 2005). Pollutant loads in Baltic Grey Seals have declined following regulations banning the use and discharge of toxic pollutants such as DDT and PCBs beginning in the 1970s. Although the prevalence of colonic ulcers has increased over the last decades, the reproductive health of female Grey Seals has improved as has the population level in the Baltic (Bergman et al. 2001). Establishment of coastal marine reserves for seals in Norway have been more effective in protecting harbour seals than Grey Seals because the latter are more likely to travel outside the areas closed to fisheries and become entangled in nets (Bjorge et al. 2002).
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