This species survives in low numbers along the west coast of Madagascar. Surveys during 1991-1995 recorded at least 222 adults and 99 breeding pairs from 105 sites, apparently concentrated into three main regions: the Antsalova region west of Bemaraha Reserve, along the Tsiribihina River, and the coast from Mahajamba Bay to the island of Nosy Hara5. Although this estimate is twice of an estimate from the period 1980-1985 it is probably due to more comprehensive surveying, and a decline in some areas was still recorded5. Recent surveys suggest that the Antsalova district is the main stronghold, with 12 pairs in the Manambolomaty complex and a further 15 pairs elsewhere in the district in 200813, and the population is currently thought to comprise c.120 breeding pairs16. Immature birds wander widely, making the non-breeding population difficult to assess3,5.