Falco novaeseelandiae is endemic to New Zealand, and is separated into three forms - Bush, Southern and Eastern - which vary in plumage, size, range and habitat type4. Bush Falcon (c.650 pairs) breeds in the North Island and north-western South Island. Southern Falcon (c.200 pairs) breeds in Fiordland, Stewart Island and its outliers, and the Auckland Islands1,2. Eastern Falcon (c.3,150) is found in open terrain in the eastern South Island1,2. It was probably once found throughout the North and South Islands, but may have never been common. Population trends are unknown but it may be declining.
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