Past human exploitation and the impact of introduced predators are likely to be responsible for past declines, but these factors cannot explain the sharp decreases since the 1950s 12. Food supplies may be affected by squid fisheries, climate change and shifts in marine food webs1,3,9. Increasing disturbance and pollution results from ecotourism and fishing2. Driftnet fishing and rock-lobster fisheries (which previously used birds for bait) has caused significant mortality5,6. On Nightingale, egging continues, perhaps causing decreases4,6. On some islands introduced predators may affect breeding success5, and predation and competition for space with subantarctic fur seals Arctocephalus tropicalis may cause local declines.
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