Eliomys quercinus is endemic to Europe, where it was historically widespread from Portugal in the west to the Urals (Russia) in the east. It is now largely confined to western Europe, including numerous Mediterranean islands, with eastern populations having become scattered and fragmented. The focus of the species range in the region is in the west. It is a polytypic species, and some insular populations are distinctive forms (e.g., Balearic Islands). Its altitudinal range is from sea level to 2,000 m.