This species was known for over 150 years, from small numbers of traded birds and a hunted bird taken by von Spix, until it was traced in 1985-1986 to near the rio São Francisco in north Bahia, Brazil. Only three birds remained and these were captured for trade in 1987 and 1988. However, a single male, paired with a female Blue-winged Macaw Propyrrhura maracana, was discovered at the site in July 1990. A female C. spixii was released from captivity in 1995 and initially paired with the male. Unfortunately, the female disappeared from the release site after seven weeks and is suspected to have collided with a power-line2. The wild bird was still paired with the female P. maracana in January 20001 but neither bird has been seen since the end of that year. In 2000, the total number of publicly declared birds in captivity was 60, but 54 of these were captive-bred4. The official captive population in 2010 totals 71 individuals, and including birds not registered in the official programme, up to 120 individuals are thought to exist in captivity worldwide. There are occasional local reports, including from Serra da Capivara National Park, which provide some hope the species may be extant7.