The species is threatened by wetland habitat degradation and loss from petroleum pollution, wetland drainage and peat-extraction9. It is also threatened with direct mortality from oil pollution1, 12, 13, drowning through entanglement in fishing nets1, 12 and from hunting on migration routes over certain regions of the Arctic1. The species has previously suffered heavy losses from an outbreak of avian cholera10 and is susceptible to avian influenza11 so may be threatened by future outbreaks of these diseases. Utilisation The species is hunted for sport in Denmark8.
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