C. vellerosus is heavily hunted for its meat and carapace (including for charangos, a musical instrument; Aguiar and Fonseca 2008), especially by indigenous groups in some parts of the Chaco region in Bolivia (Cuéllar and Noss 2003, Noss et al. 2008). It is also persecuted as an agricultural pest. In addition, some animals are killed by hunting dogs. The isolated population on the coast of Buenos Aires Province, Argentina, is negatively affected by mining activities (Abba 2008).