The Sambar extends from India and Sri Lanka east along the southern Himalayas (including Nepal and Bhutan) through much of south China (including Hainan Island) to Taiwan (where it occurs in the central and eastern parts; Lin, C.-Y. and Lee, L.-L. pers. comm. 2008). Further south it occurs in Bangladesh, throughout mainland South-east Asia (Myanmar, Thailand, Lao PDR, Cambodia, Viet Nam, West Malaysia) and many of the main islands of the Greater Sundas (excepting Java): Sumatra, Siberut, Sipora, Pagi and Nias islands (all Indonesia), and Borneo (Malaysia, Indonesia, and Brunei) (Grubb 2005). The current distribution is now highly fragmented in much of this range (see Population). Payne et al. (1985) also listed the Philippines, but the Sambar does not occur there. A record from Ujung Kulon, Java, in van Schaik and Griffiths (1996: 107) is presumably an error for Javan Rusa R. timorensis. The Sambar has been introduced widely outside its native range, e.g.: San Luis Obispo Country, California; the Gulf Prairies and Edwards Plateau regions of Texas (Ables and Ramsey 1974); the St. Vincent Islands, Franklin Country, Florida (Lewis et al. 1990); Australia (Slee 1984; Freeland 1990); New Zealand (Kelton and Skipworth 1987); and Western Cape Province, South Africa (Lever 1985). These introduced populations are not included in the distribution map.