The Japanese serow (Capricornis crispus) is endemic to Japan on three of the main islands: Honshu, Shikoku and Kyushu. The species is widespread in appropriate habitat on Honshu, but is absent from lowland cultivated areas and areas around human settlements. On Shikoku and Kyushu, their distribution is more limited. It became extinct in western Honshu and greatly reduced in other areas before the early 20th century. Since the 1960s, its range has been expanding.