Hunting, disease, drought, habitat loss, and competition with livestock. Lack of effective protection leaves it vulnerable to poaching. The development of the cattle industry, compounded by rinderpest and drought are continuing threats. The Tsavo population additionally faces predation by relatively high densities of large carnivores and competition from a greater variety of other wild herbivore species (but much lower numbers of cattle) than in its natural range (East 1999, Butynski in press).
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