The most significant threat to the survival of remaining maned wolf populations is habitat loss (8). The conversion of land to agriculture has drastically reduced the available habitat for the maned wolf, with the cerrado of Brazil being reduced to about 20 percent of its original extent (8). In addition maned wolves are often killed on highways, frequently on those which border protected areas. Indeed, road kills are responsible for the death of approximately half the annual production of pups in some reserves (8). Domestic dogs also pose a threat by transferring diseases, competing for food, and even killing the maned wolf (1).
Some local people attribute mystical qualities to several parts of the wolf's anatomy (eyes, skin, tail) and still hunt this threatened species in order to use these parts as 'talisman' or for medicinal remedies (6). Occasionally, this wolf is hunted for sport (5), and, due to the wolf's threat to domestic poultry, farmers also hunt it as a pest (6). As its habitat is encroached upon by ever-expanding farms, the wolf is forced into increased proximity with people, exacerbating the already-existing conflict (6).